Pakistan National Institute of Defensive Driving

Load Restraint Guidelines

The safe loading of vehicles is vitally important in preventing injury to people and in preventing damage to property.  There are economic benefits to all, if the load arrives at its destination intact and without any damage.

There is a greater chance of losing a load when braking at low speed, than at high speed.  It is easier for the brakes to grab at low speed.

PNIDD has developed Load Restraint Guidelines and Training Presentation that covers the following topics

SECTION A. General Principles of Load Restraint

  • Load Shift
  • How to Carry a Load Safely
  • Load Restraint Methods
  • Specific Requirements
  • Arranging Loads on Vehicles
  • Selecting the Vehicle
  • Positioning the Load
  • Unstable Loads
  • Using Dunnage
  • Do’s and Don’ts

SECTION B. Restraining Loads on Vehicles

  • How Much Load Restraint?
  • Tie-down
  • Direct Restraint
  • Vehicle and Load Securing Equipment
  • Knots and Tensioners
  • Using Load Securing Equipment
  • Wear and Damage
  • Do’s and Don’ts
  • Driving Laden Vehicles
  • Vehicle Dynamics
  • Checking The Load
  • Do’s and Don’ts


  • General Freight
  • Packs and Pallets
    Rolls, Reels and Drums
  • Pipes, Tubes, Logs, Bars and Billets
  • Sheets and Flat Loads Bales, Bags and Sacks
  • Contained Loads
  • Large loads
  • Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

SECTION D Calculating Restraint Requirements

  • Performance Standards
  • Methods of Load Restraint
  • Design for Tie-Down
  • Design for Containing or Blocking
  • Design for Unitising
  • Design for Direct Attachment
  • Design for Combined Tie-down and Direct Restraint

SECTION E Vehicle Structures

  • Tie-rails and Load Anchor Points
  • Winch Tracks
  • Container Twist Locks
  • Headboards, Loading Racks and Barriers
  • Side Gates and Drop Sides
  • Stakes, Pins, Pegs, Posts and Stanchions
  • Cradles, Chocks, A-frames and Trestles
  • Containment Bodies
  • Curtain Sides
  • Tanks and Tankers
  • Latches, Locks and Hinges
  • Stowage
  • Load Distribution

SECTION F Load Securing Equipment

  • Synthetic Rope
  • Webbing Assemblies
  • Chain Assemblies
  • Wire Rope and Attachments
  • Strapping
  • Lashing Tensioners and Connectors
  • Inter-layer Packing
  • Dunnage, Blocking Timber, Chocks, Air Bags and Tyres